The Greater Chennai Corporation (previously Madras) is the Oldest Municipal Institution in India established on the 29th September 1688. A charter was issued on the 30th December, 1607 by East Indian Company constituting the "Town of Fort St. George" and all the territories thereunto belonging, not exceeding the distance of ten miles from the Fort, into a Corporation. The Parliamentary Act of 1792 gave the Corporation power to levy Municipal Taxes in the City. The Municipal administration properly commenced from the Parliamentary Act, 1792 making provision for the good order and administration of the city. The Municipal Act has been amended introducing from time to time major changes in the constitution and powers of the Corporation. The Madras Municipal Corporation Act, 1919 (as amended) provides the basic Statutory authority for the administration now.
Sir Josiah Child, one of the directors of the East India Company was responsible for the formation of the Greater Chennai Corporation, on the model of Dutch Government in the East Indies. On 29th September 1688, the corporation was inaugurated with power to decide petty cases, levy rates upon the inhabitants for building of schools, a town hall and a jail. Mr. Nathaniel Higginson was nominated as First mayor with 12 aldermen and 60 burgesses
The Council of 200 councilors is headed by the Honorable Mayor and Council meets ordinarily once in a month. The executive wing is headed by the Commissioner. There are Deputy Commissioners and various Heads of Departments and 15 Zonal Officers at present.
Chennai is located on the Coromandel Coast on the Northern end of the State of Tamil Nadu. The city stretches along the Coromandel Coast much of its superb sandy beach and extends inland. Its irregular shape covers about 426 Sq. Km. The estimated present population of Chennai is 7.1 Million.
Greater Chennai Corporation is Maintaining 1160 roads to a length of 370 Km and storm water drain to a length of 962 Km. Total numbers of street lights in Chennai city under the maintenance of Greater Chennai Corporation is 2, 13, 045 and using 19 megawatts per day, and spending 2 lakhs for electric consumption per day. Greater Chennai Corporation having 260 parks and constructed 113 community halls for public purpose. Greater Chennai Corporation is removing 5000-5200 MT of solid waste per day through 966 conservancy vehicles and maintaining Kodungaiyur and Perungudi dumping grounds for dumping the solid waste. The total birth reported in Chennai city is 400 per day and death is 180 per day. Currently 23,538 staffs are working in it.
The Annual Budgetary estimate of Greater Chennai Corporation in 2012-13 revenue is 1326.11 crores and expenditure is 1232.97 crores. Surplus income is 93.14 crores.
Over the years, the City has developed in trade, commerce and industry. Chennai City is the biggest industrial and commercial centre of South India. There are about 15,000 industries and factories licensed in the Chennai City.
Chennai climate varies from humid to hot humid with 24° C mean temperature.